Analysis of differential gene expression between right-sided and left-sided colon cancer by bioinformatics analysis
Background Colon cancer is a common tumor of the digestive tract worldwide. Recent researches have revealed that colon cancer exhibits distinct differences in clinical and biological characteristics depending on the location of the tumor. However, the underlying genetic and molecular mechanism of the differences between right-sided colon cancer (RCC) and left-sided colon cancer (LCC) are not fully understood. This study aimed to identify molecular potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets
... rapeutic targets for precise treatment of right-sided and left-sided colon cancer using bioinformatics analysis. Methods The gene microarray profile, named GSE44076, from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) public database was downloaded and processed to then select differentially expressed genes (DEGs) on the base of two sample groups of RCC and LCC. Also, gene ontology (GO) analysis, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analysis, protein–protein interaction (PPI) network construction, module analysis, validation of hub genes, and survival analysis. Results Finally, we obtained 2259 DEGs between RCC and LCC, 1300 of which were upregulated in RCC and 945 of which were upregulated in LCC. The results of GO and KEGG analysis of the DEGs indicated that the biological functions of DEGs in RCC and LCC were significantly different. CTLA4, IL10, IL2RB, IFNG, NCAM1, EGFR, MYC, SRC, CUL3, and NCBP2 were identified from the PPI networks as the hub genes of RCC and LCC. Among the hub genes, the log-rank tests for overall survival (OS) and disease free survival (DFS) were applied. Moreover, all hub genes, except CUL3, had differential expression levels of miRNA between tumor group and normal group. Conclusion These hub genes and pathways identified based on bioinformatics analysis might conduce to explain the differences between RCC and LCC, and most of the hub genes were specific to the malignant tissues. Notably, these hub genes, especially the genes associated with immunotherapy such as CTLA4, might be potential specific targets or prognostic markers for precise treatment of colon cancer.