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The possibility of nonequilibrium conditions in doped organic molecular thin films is investigated using a combination of ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy ͑UPS͒ and contact potential difference measurements. Surface or interface photovoltage is of particular concern in materials with large band gap and appreciable band ͑or energy level͒ bending at interfaces. We investigate here zinc phthalocyanine ͑ZnPc͒ and N,NЈ-diphenyl-N,NЈ-bis͑1-naphthyl͒-1,1Јbiphenyl-4,4Љ diamine ͑␣-NPD͒ p-dopeddoi:10.1116/1.1688363 fatcat:gagmyghsuja2rkgwtctmzrsh5q