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The integration of speech recognition with natural language understanding raises issues of how to adapt natural language processing to the characteristics of spoken language; how to cope with errorful recognition output, including the use of natural language information to reduce recognition errors; and how to use information from the speech signal, beyond just the sequence of words, as an aid to understanding. This paper reviews current research addressing these questions in the Spokendoi:10.1073/pnas.92.22.9983 pmid:7479813 pmcid:PMC40722 fatcat:iyynjeqinjeyxjbnj2siqfjft4