The history of military cranioplasty

Christopher M. Bonfield, Anand R. Kumar, Peter C. Gerszten
2014 Neurosurgical Focus  
A lthough less well described and discussed than its complementary ancient neurosurgical procedure of trephination, reconstructive cranioplasty is no less important and equally intriguing. Throughout recorded history, numerous and diverse techniques have been developed to repair acquired defects of the human skull. New techniques and novel materials are continually being developed or improved to treat this complex problem properly. There is evidence of reconstructive cranioplasty treatments
more » ... asty treatments dating from the pre-Incan period in Peru, and later in the Middle East and Europe during the 16th-17th centuries. During the modern period, advances have paralleled the World Wars and, most recently, the conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan. The nearly unbroken string of trauma, conflict, and war has been the primary source of innovation and advancements in this field of neurosurgery in the past, and remains so today. For this reason, this study explores the history of cranioplasty-following and connecting the ancient neurosurgical procedure to conflict and war, while highlighting major advances during each period of conflict.
doi:10.3171/2014.1.focus13504 pmid:24684330 fatcat:i56icyfswjhbzlmrip6gnuamye