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The architecture and construction industries play an important role in achieving sustainable development goals, particularly environmental ones. These industries currently contribute to high carbon emissions and high energy consumption, as common building materials are among the leading causes of environmental damage. The production of earthen materials, namely clay brick, requires a great deal of energy and emits carbon to the atmosphere in the kilnfiring process. Previous studies have useddoi:10.14716/ijtech.v11i7.4526 fatcat:p672x6kozvdg7nedkh7yd5vctq