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Rule-based and relation-based Establishment mode Greenfield and M&A Emerging markets multinationals A B S T R A C T We develop and test a model of Chinese greenfield investments using institutional and learning theories. Both the host country institutional context and the firm's international characteristics affect the establishment mode. Using 152 Chinese emerging market multinationals (EMNEs) with 401 subsidiaries distributed in 26 countries from 2003 to 2013, we build a database of 284 pairsdoi:10.1016/j.intman.2020.100758 fatcat:lrl5fpg4dbdb7jlx2l76b3l3vq