Real-time intradermal continuous glucose monitoring using a minimally invasive microneedle-based system
Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) has the potential to greatly improve diabetes management. The aim of this work is to show a proof-of-concept CGM device which performs minimally invasive and minimally delayed in-situ glucose sensing in the dermal interstitial fluid, combining the advantages of microneedle-based and commercially available CGM systems. The device is based on the integration of an ultra-miniaturized electrochemical sensing probe in the lumen of a single hollow microneedle,
... ately realized using standard silicon microfabrication methods. By placing the sensing electrodes inside the lumen facing an opening towards the dermal space, real-time measurement purely can be performed relying on molecular diffusion over a short distance. Furthermore, the device relies only on passive capillary lumen filling without the need for complex fluid extraction mechanisms. Importantly, the transdermal portion of the device is 50 times smaller than that of commercial products. This allows access to the dermis and simultaneously reduces tissue trauma, along with being virtually painless during insertion. The threeelectrode enzymatic sensor alone was previously proven to have satisfactory sensitivity (1.5 nA/mM), linearity (up to 14 mM), selectivity, and long-term stability (up to 4 days) in-vitro. In this work we combine this sensor technology with microneedles for reliable insertion in forearm skin. In-vivo human tests showed the possibility to correctly and dynamically track glycaemia over time, with approximately 10 min delay with respect to capillary blood control values, in line with the expected physiological lag time. The proposed device can thus reduce discomfort and potentially enable less invasive real-time CGM in diabetic patients.