The Origin of Companion Galaxies

Halton Arp
1998 Astrophysical Journal  
Evidence that companion galaxies are located along the minor axes of large disk galaxies is reviewed. It is reported here that quasars also tend to be preferentially aligned along the minor axes of active disk galaxies. Empirically there is a continuity of physical properties which suggests that the intrinsic redshifts of quasars decay as they evolve into more normal galaxies. The coincident alignment of companion galaxies plus their systematically higher redshifts then both become conÐrmation
more » ... become conÐrmation of their evolution from quasars which have been previously ejected along the minor axes of active spiral galaxies. The quantization of the redshifts of companions also supports their evolutionary origin from the quantized, intrinsic, quasar redshifts.
doi:10.1086/305412 fatcat:ceqsixpucjcutcacdajlqya6zq