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Customer-owned and managed optical networks bring new cost-saving benefits. Two types of such networks are becoming widely used: metro dark fiber networks and long-haul leased wavelength networks. Customers may invoke a special QoS mechanism where end-to-end (E2E) lightpaths are dynamically established across multiple independently managed customer domains. The cost of bandwidth is substantially reduced since it largely becomes a capital cost rather than an ongoing service charge. Customers candoi:10.1002/nem.581 fatcat:rruwxzjc4bavfiac275fosqtm4