Human immunonodeficiency virus, hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus: sero-prevalence, co-infection and risk factors among prison inmates in Nasarawa State, Nigeria

Moses P. Adoga, Edmund B. Banwat, Joseph C. Forbi, Lohya Nimzing, Christopher R. Pam, Silas D. Gyar, Yusuf A. Agabi, Simon M. Agwale
2009 Journal of Infection in Developing Countries  
Published data on HIV, HBV, and HCV in correctional facilities in Nigeria is scarce. We set out to establish the seroprevalence, co-infection, and risk factors for these infections for the first time among prison inmates in Nasarawa State, Nigeria. Methodology: In a cross-sectional study conducted between April and May, 2007, blood samples were collected from 300 male prisoners of a mean age of 29.2 years, in the state's four medium-security prisons (overall population: 587). Prior to the
more » ... ethical clearance and informed consent were obtained and structured questionnaires were administered. Samples were analyzed for HIV, HBsAg, and HCV using anti-HIV 1+2-EIA-avicenna, Shantest TM -HBsAg ELISA, and anti-HCV-EIA-avicenna, respectively. Specimens initially reactive for HIV were retested with vironostika microelisa. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 13.0. P values ≤ 0.05 were considered significant. Results: Of the 300 subjects, 54 (18.0 %), 69 (23.0 %), and 37 (12.3 %) tested positive for HIV, HBV, and HCV, respectively. Co-infections were eight (2.7 %) for HIV/HBV and two (0.7 %) for HBV/HCV. Those aged 21-26 years were more likely to be infected with HIV and HBV, while those aged 33-38 years had the highest HCV infection. Associated risk factors included duration in prison, previous incarceration (for HIV, HBV and HCV), intra-prison anal sex, multiple sex partners (for HIV and HBV), ignorance of transmission modes, blood transfusion, and alcohol consumption (for HBV and HCV). No inmate injected drugs. Conclusions: The overall outcome represents the need for prison-focused intervention initiatives in Nigeria. Injected drug use is an unlikely major transmission mode among Nigerian inmates.
doi:10.3855/jidc.472 fatcat:6qnpvmbdlbc4xlsqb6kla2sd3q