Quantum refrigerators in quest of the absolute zero

Ronnie Kosloff, Eitan Geva, Jeffrey M. Gordon
2000 Journal of Applied Physics  
The second and third laws of thermodynamics can be used to establish a fundamental bound for the maximum possible cooling rate in approaching the absolute zero of temperature. In modeling the behavior of the molecular refrigerators geared toward attaining ultralow temperatures, only quantum mechanical, as opposed to classical physics, models can be admissible. As a simple model, we analyze a three-level quantum refrigerator, and in particular its irreversible thermodynamic performance as absolute zero is approached.
doi:10.1063/1.373503 fatcat:tlayhlmagbgc5gtkumdr2mbpra