Andreas Vesalius the Reformer of Anatomy. By James Moores Ball, M.D. (Saint Louis: Medical Science Press. 1910. Pp. xvii, 149.)

1911 American Historical Review  
Ball: Andreas Vesalius find that Wolsey made strenuous efforts to kidnap him and hold him prisoner. The archbishop is "described by a contemporary as "crafty and insinuating ". It shows his secular character that he sometimes wore a coat of mail under his ecclesiastical vestments. When we compare him with the stately, highminded, scholarly Warham, and with Cranmer, his contemporaries at Canterbury, we realize how different was the English from the Scottish Church. It is true that there was a
more » ... that there was a certain generosity in Beaton. He founded St. Mary's College, St. Andrews, but he worshipped the god of things as they are, and was aroused to action in spiritual matters only when the exiSlting conditions were menaced. It thus came about that Beaton has the evil distinction of being the first persecutor of the Protestants. Patrick Hamilton, a youth of good family, went, "in 1527, to study at Marburg, and was profoundly influenced by the teaching of Luther, whom however he never met. He returned to Scotland in the same year, and announced his new faith so openly that he was quickly cited to appear before Beaton. The two men were, it is said, related. Beaton, as archbishop, condemned him as a heretic and he was burned at St. Andrews on the day the archbishop's sentence was pronounced. There is no record of any action by the secular power, and it may be that Beaton, in his heat and fury, sent the young man to execution on his own authority. Hamilton was the first martyr of the Scottish reformation. The archbishop who condemned him had no understanding of the heart of the Scottish people. There was a gulf between the prelacy and the masses, and the profound dislike which the prelacy aroused was to lead to the rigid Presbyterianism of the Scots, still one of the vital forces in the world. As we have said before, prelacy in England never was so completely secular in tone as it became in Scotland and this goes far to explain why the state church in England is still Episcopal while in Scotland it is Presbyterian.
doi:10.1086/ahr/17.1.125 fatcat:wendzf3w7bdmjk4tqur3n4qxhu