Viburnum opulus L. Juice Phenolics Inhibit Mouse 3T3-L1 Cells Adipogenesis and Pancreatic Lipase Activity
Viburnum opulus L. fruit is a rich source of phenolic compounds that may be involved in the prevention of metabolic diseases. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of Viburnum opulus fresh juice (FJ) and juice purified by solid-phase extraction (PJ) on the adipogenesis process with murine 3T3-L1 preadipocyte cell line and pancreatic lipase activity in triolein emulsion, as well as their phenolic profiles by UPLC/Q-TOF-MS. Decrease of lipids and triacylglycerol accumulation in
... l accumulation in differentiated 3T3-L1 cells were in concordance with downregulation of the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARγ), CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha (C/EBPβ/α), and sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c). Furthermore, regulation of PPARγ-mediated β-lactamase expression by V. opulus components in reporter gene assay, as well as their binding affinity to ligand-binding domain of PPARγ, were tested. In addition, the levels of enzymes involved in lipid metabolism, like fatty acid synthase (FAS) or acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), were decreased, along with inflammatory cytokines, like tumor necrosis factorα (TNFα), interleukin-6 (Il-6) and leptin. Moreover, FJ and PJ were able to inhibit pancreatic lipase, which potentially could reduce the fat absorption from the intestinal lumen and the storage of body fat in the adipose tissues. Thirty-two phenolic compounds with chlorogenic acid as the dominant compound were identified in PJ which revealed significant biological activity. These data contribute to elucidate V. opulus juice phenolic compounds' molecular mechanism in adipogenesis regulation in 3T3-L1 cells and dietary fat lipolysis.