Seasonal and diurnal performance of daily forecasts with WRF-NOAHMP V3.8.1 over the United Arab Emirates
Abstract. Effective numerical weather forecasting is vital in arid regions like the United Arab Emirates (UAE) where extreme events like heat waves, flash floods and dust storms are severe. Hence, accurate forecasting of quantities like surface temperatures and humidity is very important. To date, there have been few seasonal-to-annual scale verification studies with WRF at high spatial and temporal resolution. This study employs a convection-permitting scale (2.7 km grid scale) simulation with
... WRF-NOAHMP, in daily forecast mode, from January 01 to November 30 2015. WRF was verified using measurements of 2 m air temperature (T-2m), dew point (TD-2m), and 10 m windspeed (UV-10m) from 48 UAE surface stations. Analysis was made of seasonal and diurnal performance within the desert, marine and mountain regions of the UAE. Results show that WRF represents temperature (T-2m) quite adequately during the daytime with biases ≤ +1 ˚C. There is however a nocturnal cold bias (−1 to −4 ˚C), which increases during hotter months in the desert and mountain regions. The marine region has the lowest T-2m biases (≤−0.75 ˚C). WRF performs well regarding TD-2m, with mean biases mostly ≤ 1 ˚C. TD-2m over the marine region is overestimated though (0.75–1 ˚C), and nocturnal mountain TD-2m is underestimated (~ −2 ˚C). UV-10m performance on land still needs improvement, and biases can occasionally be large (1–2 m s−1). This performance tends to worsen during the hot months, particularly inland with peak biases reaching ~ 3 m s−1. UV-10m are better simulated in the marine region (bias ≤ 1 m s−1). There is an apparent relationship between T-2m bias and UV-10m bias, which may indicate issues in simulation of the daytime sea breeze. TD-2m biases tend to be more independent. Studies such as these are vital for accurate assessment of WRF nowcasting performance and to identify model deficiencies. By combining sensitivity tests, process and observational studies with seasonal verification, we can further improve forecasting systems for the UAE.