Virulence Traits Contributing to Pathogenicity of Candida Species
Journal of Microbiology & Experimentation
Candida is the unique opportunistic mycotic pathogen that has adapted variety of mechanisms to establish itself both as commensal and pathogen in humans. This yeast like fungus presents in many clinical forms, ranging from superficial manifestations involving the skin, nails and mucosal surfaces to deep seated infections involving various internal organs and disseminated diseases. Although Candida spp. can initiate infection in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised hosts, the incidence of
... andidiasis is usually high in immunocompromised patients. Therefore the role of Candida in overall process of initiation and progression of infection was considered to be passive. However, recently this concept is revamped and it can be now stated that Candida actively participates in the pathophysiology of establishment and progression of infection through the mechanisms of aggression known as virulence factors. Some of these virulence factors help in colonization or initiation of infection while others aid in progression of infection or dissemination in host tissues. Adherence to host tissues, biofilm formation on medical devices and secretion of ectohydrolases are some of putative virulence traits of Candida spp. Although virulence factors contributing to pathogenicity of Candida albicans is well studied, the search through available literature has revealed a dearth of information on virulence factors of non albicans Candida (NAC) spp. The identification of virulence attributes unique to a particular Candida spp. is very important to understand the pathogenesis and epidemiology of candidiasis.