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Calmodulin Differentially Modulates Smad1 and Smad2 Signaling
Journal of Biological Chemistry
The members of the Smad protein family are intracellular mediators of transforming growth factor ␤ (TGF-␤) signaling. Smad1 transduces bone morphogenetic protein signals, inducing formation of ventral mesoderm in Xenopus embryos, whereas Smad2 transduces activin/ TGF-␤ signals, generating dorsal mesoderm. Calmodulin directly binds to many Smads and was shown to downregulate Smad2 activity in a cell culture system (Zimmerman, C. M., Kariapper, M. S. T., and Mathews, L. S. (1997) J. Biol. Chem.doi:10.1074/jbc.m005727200 pmid:11007779 fatcat:ezcqgymuqzdgfb63uhx6qc5rzm