On the metabolism of carotenoids in the crustacean Artemia salina

F C Czygan
1968 Zeitschrift fur Naturforschung. Teil B, Chemie, Biochemie, Biophysik, Biologie und verwandte Gebiete  
Die Zusammensetzung und der Stoffwechsel der Carotinoide in adulten Exemplaren von Artemia salina wurden untersucht. Unabhängig von der Fütterung mit carotinoidfreier Hefe, mit an Oxicarotinoiden reicher Nahrung oder mit Oxocarotinoid-haltigen Algen lassen sich als Hauptpigmente Canthaxanthin (4.4'-Dioxo-/?-carotin) und Echinenon (4-Oxo-/?-carotin) nachweisen. Daneben wur den in einer Artemia-Probe Astacin (SAS'^'-Tetraoxo-^-carotin) und 3.4.4'-Trioxo-/?-carotin gefun den. Außerdem konnten in
more » ... ßerdem konnten in geringen Konzentrationen einige der entsprechenden Oxiverbindungen (4-Oxi-, 4.4'-Dioxi-, 3.4.3'.4'-Tetraoxi-/?-carotin) identifiziert werden. Diese Ergebnisse sprechen da für, daß die Oxocarotinoide End-, nicht Zwischenprodukte im Stoffwechsel der untersuchten Krebse sind. Recently we studied the m etabolism o f carotenoid pigments o f Crustacea b y feeding unicellular green algae to nauplii o f Artemia salina1. These algae, species o f the genera Ankistrodesmus, Chlorella, Crucigenia, and Scenedesmus, have an exactly de fined composition o f pigments both under norm al (sufficient nitrogen) and under nitrogen-deficient conditions. In the absence o f nitrogen they produce so-called secondary carotenoids, m ainly keto-derivatives o f /^-carotene and its o xi-co m po u n ds2. The reason w hy we p refer this diet to the feeding with synthetic polyenes is the im possibility o f introducing higher concentrations into the organism s even in the presence o f surface-active agents 3> 4. Sim ilar ex periments with Daphnia magna and other Crustacea fed on Chlorella cells have been published re cently 4> 5. In the meantime w e obtained further evi dence supporting our conclusion that certain strains o f Artemia salina are unable to biosynthesize astaxanthin, the typical pigment o f m any Crustacea 4_8. T w o o f the strains studied previously 1 have been used in this w o rk : specimen no. 2 from C alifornia with canthaxanthin and echinenone and specimen no. 3 from C anada with canthaxanthin, echinenone, and astacene (not astaxanthin as quoted i n 4) in eggs and freshly hatched nauplii. The nauplii 1 F.-C. ic h e s t e r , Biochem. J. 94,26p [1965]. 4 P. J. H e r r i n g , Comparat. Biochem. Physiol. 24,187 [1968], 5 B. M. G i l c h r i s t , Comparat. Biochem. Physiol. 24, 123 [1968]. 6 T. W . G o o d w i n , Biochemistry of pigments, in: T. W a t e r m a n (Editor), Physiology of Crustacea, p. 101. Academic Press, New York 1960. 7 C . B o d e a , E. N i c o a r a , G . I l l y e s , and M. S e r b a n , Rev. roum. Biochim. 2, 205 [1965]. hatched at 28 C within 24 to 36 hours in the me dium of W i e d e m a n n and K r a m e r 9. Thereafter the temperature was reduced to 22 °C. The organisms have been fed daily either on bakers' yeast, fre of ca rotenoids, or on a basal mixture consisting of 2 parts (in g) of yeast, 2 parts of egg yolk 10, and 1 /2 part of Multibionta, a multi-vitamin preparation 1J. Both diets were used alone or together with nitrogen-de ficient algae rich in canthaxanthin and astaxanthin (Chlorella fusca 211-8b from P r i n g s h e i m ' s collec tion,
pmid:4387315 fatcat:fktvdgnhtbfyzkk2ldrg2zfmgm