Shoreline Orientation and Storm Surge

Carl H. Hobbs III
1970 Atlantic geology  
The storm surge is the deviation of the observed storm tide from the expected astronomical tide. Some authors (Pore, 1970) have differentiated between storm surges generated by hurricanes and extratropical cyclones, however this difference appears to be a function of magnitude of intensity rather than storm type. Four factors are generally considered in the generation of storm surges. These are: 1) the wind set-up, that is the stress of the wind blowing over the sea surface piles water up along
more » ... iles water up along the fetch; 2) the inverted barometer effect, which is the increase of the sea level surface elevation in a region of low barometric pressure. A pressure drop of one inch of mercury (33.86 millibars) yields a water level rise of approximately 13.5 inches (Pore, 1961) ; 3) the transport of water by waves into the near shore area. This factor is related to the wind set-up and might be dubbed the wave set-up; and 4) modification of the storm sea-level due to the shoreline configuration and bathymetry. Lateral constriction and shallowing of a bay cause an increase of the (astronomical or storm) tidal range.
doi:10.4138/1897 fatcat:clos6slbargjnllsqcyyu3pysi