Generalization of Bloch's theorem for arbitrary boundary conditions: Interfaces and topological surface band structure

Emilio Cobanera, Abhijeet Alase, Gerardo Ortiz, Lorenza Viola
2018 Physical review B  
We describe a method for exactly diagonalizing clean D-dimensional lattice systems of independent fermions subject to arbitrary boundary conditions in one direction, as well as systems composed of two bulks meeting at a planar interface. Our method builds on the generalized Bloch theorem [A. Alase et al., Phys. Rev. B 96, 195133 (2017)] and the fact that the bulk-boundary separation of the Schrodinger equation is compatible with a partial Fourier transform operation. Bulk equations may display
more » ... nusual features because they are relative eigenvalue problems for non-Hermitian, bulk-projected Hamiltonians. Nonetheless, they admit a rich symmetry analysis that can simplify considerably the structure of energy eigenstates, often allowing a solution in fully analytical form. We illustrate our extension of the generalized Bloch theorem to multicomponent systems by determining the exact Andreev bound states for a simple SNS junction. We then analyze the Creutz ladder model, by way of a conceptual bridge from one to higher dimensions. Upon introducing a new Gaussian duality transformation that maps the Creutz ladder to a system of two Majorana chains, we show how the model provides a first example of a short-range chiral topological insulator hosting topological zero modes with a power-law profile. Additional applications include the complete analytical diagonalization of graphene ribbons with both zigzag-bearded and armchair boundary conditions, and the analytical determination of the edge modes in a chiral p+ip two-dimensional topological superconductor. Lastly, we revisit the phenomenon of Majorana flat bands and anomalous bulk-boundary correspondence in a two-band gapless s-wave topological superconductor. We analyze the equilibrium Josephson response of the system, showing how the presence of Majorana flat bands implies a substantial enhancement in the 4π-periodic supercurrent.
doi:10.1103/physrevb.98.245423 fatcat:5zccp7kxw5dwddjpadauz75aii