Communication and Randomness Lower Bounds for Secure Computation
IEEE Transactions on Information Theory
In secure multiparty computation (MPC), mutually distrusting users collaborate to compute a function of their private data without revealing any additional information about their data to other users. While it is known that information theoretically secure MPC is possible among n users (connected by secure and noiseless links and have access to private randomness) against the collusion of less than n/2 users in the honest-but-curious model, relatively less is known about the communication and
... ndomness complexity of secure computation. In this work, we employ information theoretic techniques to obtain lower bounds on the amount of communication and randomness required for secure MPC. We restrict ourselves to a concrete interactive setting involving 3 users under which all functions are securely computable against corruption of a single user in the honest-but-curious model. We derive lower bounds for both the perfect security case (i.e., zero-error and no leakage of information) and asymptotic security (where the probability of error and information leakage vanish as block-length goes to ∞). Our techniques include the use of a data processing inequality for residual information (i.e., the gap between mutual information and Gács-Körner common information), a new information inequality for 3-user protocols, and the idea of distribution switching. Our lower bounds are shown to be tight for various functions of interest. In particular, we show concrete functions which have "communication-ideal" protocols, i.e., which achieve the minimum communication simultaneously on all links in the network, and also use minimum amount of randomness. Also, we obtain the first explicit example of a function that incurs a higher communication cost than the input length in the secure computation model of "Feige, Kilian, and Naor [STOC, 1994]", who had shown that such functions exist.