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The coupled thermosphere-ionosphere-plasmasphere model CTIP is used to study the global threedimensional circulation and its eect on neutral composition in the midlatitude F-layer. At equinox, the vertical air motion is basically up by day, down by night, and the atomic oxygen/molecular nitrogen OaN 2 concentration ratio is symmetrical about the equator. At solstice there is a summer-to-winter¯ow of air, with downwelling at subauroral latitudes in winter that produces regions of large OaN 2doi:10.1007/s00585-999-0794-x fatcat:wvcskqkcwvdnvjyhehvsadvvke