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The down cow is a diagnostic challenge because of the multiplicity of factors which can lead to the same general presentation. Recumbency itself makes examination more difficult due to the bulk and weight of modern dairy cows. The superimposition of several causes in a single case make the order of events and the relative importance of various factors difficult or impossible to sort out. On post mortem examination secondary ischemia and muscle tearing, dislocations and fractures may be readilydoi:10.21423/aabppro19985703 fatcat:hwmoizxh3rbqzatlo4qr6clpiu