Myrtus Polyphenols, from Antioxidants to Anti-Inflammatory Molecules: Exploring a Network Involving Cytochromes P450 and Vitamin D
Inflammatory response represents one of the main mechanisms of healing and tissue function restoration. On the other hand, chronic inflammation leads to excessive secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines involved in the onset of several diseases. Oxidative stress condition may contribute in worsening inflammatory state fall, increasing reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and cytokines release. Polyphenols can counteract inflammation and oxidative stress, modulating the release of toxic
... lease of toxic molecules and interacting with physiological defenses, such as cytochromes p450 enzymes. In this paper, we aimed at evaluating the anti-inflammatory properties of different concentrations of Myrtus communis L. pulp and seeds extracts, derived from liquor industrial production, on human fibroblasts. We determined ROS production after oxidative stress induction by H2O2 treatment, and the gene expression of different proinflammatory cytokines. We also analyzed the expression of CYP3A4 and CYP27B1 genes, in order to evaluate the capability of Myrtus polyphenols to influence the metabolic regulation of other molecules, including drugs, ROS, and vitamin D. Our results showed that Myrtus extracts exert a synergic effect with vitamin D in reducing inflammation and ROS production, protecting cells from oxidative stress damages. Moreover, the extracts modulate CYPs expression, preventing chronic inflammation and suggesting their use in development of new therapeutic formulations.