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ERK signaling is a central regulator for BMP-4 dependent capillary sprouting
Objective: Bone Morphogenetic Protein-4 (BMP-4) and Extracellular-Signal Regulated Kinases (ERK) play crucial roles in vascular diseases. Here, we demonstrate that BMP-4 not only signals through the classical Smad cascade but also activates ERK phosphorylation as an alternative pathway in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and that Smad and ERK pathways communicate through signal crosstalk. Methods: HUVECs were treated with BMP-4 and/or MEK inhibitors. Smad 6 and constitutivelydoi:10.1016/j.cardiores.2007.08.003 pmid:17850776 fatcat:vjfl4q2ocbfrvjxs3v5snhxuaa