A Critical Review of 3GPP Standardization of Device-to-Device Communication in Cellular Networks
SN Computer Science
Device-to-device (D2D) communication is rapidly evolving into a viable method of information exchange in a cellular network. It has a very low end-to-end latency and can increase spectral efficiency of a cellular network. The latest releases of 3GPP specification have given considerable attention to standardize this mode of communication and integrate it in the ecosystem of LTE advanced. This will give more impetus to the development of D2D technologies and their adoption by mobile operators.
... is paper presents a discussion and critical analysis of the main features of D2D communication as defined in Release 12 and subsequent releases of 3GPP specifications. Keywords Device-to-device (D2D) · 3GPP · LTE-direct · LTE-advanced · Cellular network · 5G Introduction One of the biggest challenges faced by telecom operators is the continuous increase in demand for high data rate and low end-to-end delay. One way to achieve it is through device-todevice (D2D) communication. D2D communication enables direct communication between proximate devices bypassing the base station. As D2D communication promises ultra-low latency for communication among the users, it has attracted great attention from researchers working on the forthcoming 5th generation cellular networks [24, 25] . D2D communication can operate using both licensed cellular spectrum and unlicensed spectrum; the two modes are known as in-band communication and out-band communication, respectively. In the first case, the D2D communication and the cellular communication can both operate over the entire licensed cellular spectrum; this is known as the underlay D2D communication mode. But it leads to heightened interference term evolution-advanced (LTE-A) ecosystem so it can be adopted seamlessly by cellular operators. The integration of D2D communication into LTE-A began with the 3GPP Release 12. In the USA, this release has been adopted for the next-generation public safety network with a 700 MHz of dedicated spectrum allocated by Federal Communications Commission (FCC)  . The following releases of 3GPP standards have enhanced the support for D2D communication. This paper gives an overview of the standardization of D2D communication based on 3GPP Release 12 and subsequent 3GPP releases. We describe the general features of 3GPP releases in the context of D2D communication in Sect. 2. Section 3 illustrates the use case scenarios. We describe the reference architecture in Sect. 4, channel structure in Sect. 5, and the core features of D2D communication as outlined in the 3GPP Release 12 in Sect. 6. We present a critical discussion in Sect. 7 and conclude in Sect. 8.