Cranial bone defects: current and future strategies

Caroline Szpalski, Jason Barr, Meredith Wetterau, Pierre B. Saadeh, Stephen M. Warren
2010 Neurosurgical Focus  
Bony defects in the craniomaxillofacial skeleton remain a major and challenging health concern. Surgeons have been trying for centuries to restore functionality and aesthetic appearance using autografts, allografts, and even xenografts without entirely satisfactory results. As a result, physicians, scientists, and engineers have been trying for the past few decades to develop new techniques to improve bone growth and bone healing. In this review, the authors summarize the advantages and
more » ... antages and limitations of current animal models; describe current materials used as scaffolds, cellbased, and protein-based therapies; and lastly highlight areas for future investigation. The purpose of this review is to highlight the major scaffold-, cell-, and protein-based preclinical tools that are currently being developed to repair cranial defects. (DOI: 10.3171/2010.9.FOCUS10201) key WorDS • cranial bone defects • bone-tissue engineering • scaffold • bone healing 1 Abbreviations used in this paper: ADMSC = adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells; BCP = biphasic calcium phosphate; BMMSC = bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell; BMP = bone morphogenetic protein; HA = hydroxyapatite; OCP = octacalcium phosphate; rhBMP = recombinant human BMP; TCP = tricalcium phosphate; VEGF = vascular endothelial growth factor.
doi:10.3171/2010.9.focus10201 pmid:21121722 fatcat:v6dhddjl4re7dchxk4o54g27p4