Visual pollution phenomena and sensitivity of residences in heritage city centers Case of: Old district of Manama city, Kingdom of Bahrain

Islam H. El-Ghonaimy
2018 Contemporary Urban Affairs  
A B S T R A C T Image of the ancient cities across the Arab region have been changed. The urbanization progress and their subsequent urban changes are of rapid acceleration, due to the population increase in the named cities; affecting the encompassed old districts in many respects. The mentioned changes are forked into two main branches; controlled and uncontrolled. On one side, the controlled category abide by the urban regulations in terms of the visual representation of the old districts.
more » ... he old districts. On the other side, the uncontrolled counterpart breach these regulations and their logical assumptions ending up in many urban problems in general and visual pollution in particular. The objective of this research is to tackle those cases of visual pollution. The research methodology is staked on both of the data collection and theoretical background about old district in Manama City, whereas thorough historic background of the city and analytical studies of the selected data and questionnaire are carried out. Although there were a few open-ended questions, the majority were closed-ended taking the form of yes/no, multiple choice, or rating scales. Questions went through several renditions based on intra-and interdepartmental review before being presented.
doi:10.25034/ijcua.2018.4694 fatcat:msdabgtugra5rkklugkkrl2sya