A comparison of mechanisms for improving mobile IP handoff latency for end-to-end TCP
Proceedings of the 9th annual international conference on Mobile computing and networking - MobiCom '03
Handoff latency results in packet losses and severe End-to-End TCP performance degradation as TCP, perceiving these losses as congestion, causes source throttling or retransmission. In order to mitigate these effects, various Mobile IP(v6) extensions have been designed to augment the base Mobile IP with hierarchical registration management, address pre-fetching and local retransmission mechanisms. While these methods have reduced the impact of losses on TCP goodput and improved handoff latency,
... ed handoff latency, no comparative studies have been done regarding the relative performance amongst them. In this paper, we comprehensively evaluated the impact of layer-3 handoff latency on End-to-End TCP for various Mobile IP(v6) extensions. Five such frameworks are compared with the base Mobile IPv6 framework, namely, i) Hierarchical Mobile IPv6, ii) Hierarchical Mobile IPv6 with Fast-handover, iii) (Flat) Mobile IPv6 with Fast-handover, iv) Simultaneous Bindings, and v) Seamless handoff architecture for Mobile IP (S-MIP). We propose an evaluation model examining the effect of linear and ping-pong movement on handoff latency and TCP goodput, for all above frameworks. Our results show that S-MIP performs best under both ping-pong and linear movements during a handoff, with latency comparable to a layer-2 (access layer) handoff. All other frameworks suffer from packet losses and performance degradation of some sort. We also proposed an optimization for S-MIP which improves the performance by further eliminating the possibility of packets out of order, caused by the local packet forwarding mechanisms of S-MIP.