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We discuss the features and trends of new space-division-multiplexing technology: multicore and multimode optical fiber amplification for realizing long-haul optical transmission systems with a future class capacity of petabits per second. Recent research activities are reviewed, and enabling technologies for increasing the transmission capacity and improving the optical signal-to-noise ratio are discussed.doi:10.2184/lsj.41.6_416 fatcat:vowimhbw4jdivpxfrr64ar3zwy