Cryogenics for CERN Experiments. Past, Present and Future [chapter]

Johan Bremer, Jean Pierre Dauvergne, Dimitri Delikaris, Nicolas Delruelle, Friedrich Haug, Gerhard Kesseler, Giorgio Passardi, Jean Michel Rieubland, Johann Tischhauser
1997 Proceedings of the Sixteenth International Cryogenic Engineering Conference/International Cryogenic Materials Conference  
Use of cryogenics at CERN was originated (in the 1960s) by bubble chambers and the associated s.c. solenoids. Complex cryoplants were installed to provide cooling at LH 2 and LHe temperatures. Continuity (in the 1970s) in He cryogenics for experiments was provided by spectrometer magnets for fixed target physics of the SPS accelerator. More recently (in the 1980s), large "particle-transparent" s.c. solenoids for collider experiments (LEP) have been built demanding new cryoplants. The LHC
more » ... ents (in the 2000s) will continue the tradition with s.c. dipoles (ALICE and LHC-B), solenoids (CMS, ATLAS) and toroids (ATLAS) of unusual size. Cryogenics for experiments using noble liquids follows the same trend since the development (in the 1970s) of the first shower LAr detectors. A LKr calorimeter (about 10 m 3 ) will be operated in 1996 and the ATLAS experiment foresees a set of three huge LAr calorimeters (almost 90 m 3 total volume of liquid) to be installed underground.
doi:10.1016/b978-008042688-4/50041-7 fatcat:5xhmymg5pfcangpa4olkxzgoum