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Proceedings of the Sixteenth International Cryogenic Engineering Conference/International Cryogenic Materials Conference
Use of cryogenics at CERN was originated (in the 1960s) by bubble chambers and the associated s.c. solenoids. Complex cryoplants were installed to provide cooling at LH 2 and LHe temperatures. Continuity (in the 1970s) in He cryogenics for experiments was provided by spectrometer magnets for fixed target physics of the SPS accelerator. More recently (in the 1980s), large "particle-transparent" s.c. solenoids for collider experiments (LEP) have been built demanding new cryoplants. The LHCdoi:10.1016/b978-008042688-4/50041-7 fatcat:5xhmymg5pfcangpa4olkxzgoum