Genetic and Environmental Contributions to Functional Connectivity Architecture of the Human Brain

Zhi Yang, Xi-Nian Zuo, Katie L. McMahon, R. Cameron Craddock, Clare Kelly, Greig I. de Zubicaray, Ian Hickie, Peter A. Bandettini, F. Xavier Castellanos, Michael P. Milham, Margaret J. Wright
2016 Cerebral Cortex  
One of the grand challenges faced by neuroscience is to delineate the determinants of interindividual variation in the comprehensive structural and functional connection matrices that comprise the human connectome. At present, this endeavor appears most tractable at the macroanatomic scale, where intrinsic brain activity exhibits robust patterns of synchrony that recapitulate core functional circuits at the individual level. Here, we use a classical twin study design to examine the heritability
more » ... of intrinsic functional network properties in 101 twin pairs, including network activity (i.e., variance of a network's specific temporal fluctuations) and internetwork coherence (i.e., correlation between networks' specific temporal fluctuations). Five of 7 networks exhibited significantly heritable (23.3-65.2%) network activity, 6 of the 21 internetwork coherences were significantly heritable (25.6-42.0%), and 11 of the 21 internetwork coherences were significantly influenced by common environmental factors (18.0-47.1%). These results suggest that the source of interindividual variation in functional connectome has a modular architecture: individual modules represented by intrinsic connectivity networks are genetic controlled, while environmental factors influence the interplays between the modules. This work further provides network-specific hypotheses for discovery of the specific genetic and environmental factors influencing functional specialization and integration of the human brain.
doi:10.1093/cercor/bhw027 pmid:26891986 pmcid:PMC4830303 fatcat:3gzxbrdnrvgczadotegbfmnj2e