Removal of electrodes of implanted systems. The state of the problem

O. V. Sapelnikov, A. A. Kulikov, D. I. Cherkashin, I. R. Grishin, O. A. Nikolaeva, D. F. Ardus, A. A. Shiryaev, R. S. Akchurin
2019 Patologiâ Krovoobrašeniâ i Kardiohirurgiâ  
<p>The increase in indications for cardiac implantable devices had led to an increase in the number of device implantations worldwide, with a corresponding increase in the incidence of complications. Finally, in 1980, the development of methods for removing problematic leads and devices were first attempted. Currently, an average of 10,000–15,000 extractions/year are performed worldwide. Improving the design and technical performance of device leads has been the goal of several scientific and
more » ... al scientific and engineering efforts; however, they occasionally continue to fail, potentially leading to adverse clinical outcomes. The preferred technique is transvenous lead extraction, and over the past few decades, its effectiveness has substantially improved. Nevertheless, the extraction procedure is associated with high risks, and these risks should be considered when deciding on the procedure. The present review discusses the issues associated with determining appropriate strategies to reduce the risks associated with lead extraction and identifying accurate indicators for the removal of cardiac implantable device leads.</p><p>Received 17 May 2019. Revised 12 December 2019. Accepted 13 December 2019.</p><p><strong>Funding:</strong> The study did not have sponsorship.</p><p><strong>Conflict of interest:</strong> Authors declare no conflict of interest.</p>
doi:10.21688/1681-3472-2019-4-47-52 fatcat:hanvcwtebvhcrb25zyge53smky