Large-scale single nucleotide polymorphism analysis of candidates for low-penetrance breast cancer genes
Breast Cancer Research
There is compelling evidence from transgenic mouse studies and analysis of mutations in human carcinomas indicating that the TGF-β signal transduction pathway is tumor suppressive. We have shown that overexpression of TGF-β1 in mammary epithelial cells suppresses the development of carcinomas and that expression of a dominant negative type II TGF-β receptor (DNIIR) in mammary epithelial cells under control of the MMTV promoter/enhancer increases the incidence of mammary carcinomas. Studies of
... nomas. Studies of human tumors have demonstrated inactivating mutations in human tumors of genes encoding proteins involved in TGF-β signal transduction, including DPC4/Smad4, Smad2, and the type II TGF-β receptor (TβRII). There is also evidence that TGF-β can enhance the progression of tumors. This hypothesis is being tested in genetically modified mice. To attain complete loss of TβRII, we have generated mice with loxP sites flanking exon 2 of Tgfbr2 and crossed them with mice expressing Cre recombinase under control of the MMTV promoter/enhancer to obtain Tgfbr2 mgKO mice. These mice show lobuloalveolar hyperplasia. Mice are being followed for mammary tumor development. Tgfbr2 mgKO mice that also express polyoma virus middle T antigen under control of the MMTV promoter (MMTV-PyVmT) develop mammary tumors with a significantly shorter latency than MMTV-PyVmT mice and show a marked increase in pulmonary metastases. Our data do not support the hypothesis that TGF-β signaling in mammary carcinoma cells is important for invasion and metastasis, at least in this model system. The importance of stromal-epithelial interactions in mammary gland development and tumorigenesis is well established. These interactions probably involve autocrine and paracrine action of multiple growth factors, including members of the TGF-β family, which are expressed in both stroma and epithelium. Again, to accomplish complete knockout of the type II TGF-β receptor gene in mammary stromal cells, FSP1-Cre and Tgfbr2 flox/flox mice were crossed to attain Tgfbr2 fspKO mice. The Despite over a decade of scrutiny and over 20 published reports from various countries, the degree to which ATM mutations lead to breast References 1. Gatti RA, Tward A, Concannon P: Cancer risk in ATM heterozygotes: a model of phenotypic and mechanistic differences between missense and truncating mutations. Mol Biol Metab 1999, 68:419-423. 2. Spring K, Ahangari F, Scott SP, Waring P, Purdie DM, Chen PC, Hourigan K, et al.: Mice heterozygous for mutation in Atm, the gene involved in ataxia-telangiectasia, have heightened susceptibility to cancer. Nat Genet 2002, 32:185-190. 3. Scott SP, Bendix R, Chen P, Clark R, Dork T, Lavin MF: Missense mutations but not allelic variants alter the function of ATM by dominant interference in patients with breast cancer. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2002, 99:925-930. 4. Concannon P: ATM heterozygosity and cancer risk. Nat Genet 2002, 32:89-90. 5. Chenevix-Trench G, Spurdle AB, Gatei M, Kelly H, Marsh A, Chen X, Donn K, et al.: Dominant negative ATM mutations in breast cancer families.