Health-related stakeholders' perceptions of clinical pharmacy services in Qatar
In Qatar, the National Vision 2030 and the National Health Strategy 2018-2022 articulate the need to improve healthcare delivery by better utilisation of the skilled workforce. In this regard, pharmacy practice is rapidly advancing and several extended pharmacy services are now available in institutionalised settings. Objective This study aimed to determine health-related stakeholders' perceptions of current clinical pharmacy services in Qatar, and the potential development and implementation
... nd implementation of further patient-centred roles. Setting All major organisations and institutions relating to the practice, education, regulation, and governance of pharmacy in Qatar. Method Qualitative, face-to-face semi-structured interviews were conducted with individuals in key strategic positions of policy development and influence (i.e. health-related academic leaders, healthcare policy developers, directors of medicine/pharmacy/nursing, and patient safety leaders). Participants were recruited via a combination of purposeful and snowball sampling, until the point of data saturation was reached. The interview guide was grounded in the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research domains of innovation characteristics, outer and inner setting, characteristics of individuals, and implementation process. The interviews were digitally recorded, transcribed and independently analysed by two researchers using the Framework approach. Main outcome measure Perceptions of stakeholders regarding current and potential for future clinical pharmacy services in Qatar. Results Thirty-seven interviews were conducted with stakeholders of policy influence in healthcare. The interviewees reported a variety of clinical pharmacy services available in Qatar, which they perceived as positively impacting patient care outcomes, pharmacists' professional autonomy, and the healthcare system in general (innovation characteristics). However, they perceived that these services were mainly performed in hospitals and less in community pharmacy setting (inner setting) and were undervalued by patients and the public (outer setting). Expansion of pharmacists' clinical activities was supported, with recognition of facilitators such as the skillset and training of pharmacists, potential time release due to automation and well-considered implementation processes (characteristics of individuals, inner setting, process). Conclusion Health-related stakeholders in Qatar have positive perceptions of current clinical pharmacy services and support the expansion of pharmacist's roles. However, service development needs to consider the issues of patient and public awareness and initially target institutionalised healthcare settings.