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Adequate encodings are a powerful programming tool, which eliminate whole classes of program bugs: they ensure that a program cannot generate ill-formed data, because such data is not part of the representation; and they also ensure that a program is well-defined, meaning that it cannot have different behaviors on different representations of the same piece of data. Unfortunately, it has proven difficult to define adequate encodings of programming languages themselves. Such encodings would bedoi:10.1145/2096148.2034681 fatcat:bpdwub6nzrgq3g6leogxcz2tya