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Measurement of faecal steroids as a non-invasive technique is widely used to monitor reproductive hormones in captive and free-ranging wild animals. This method offers a great advantage over invasive techniques like blood collection and deserves to be used in domestic animals. Repeated blood sampling is stressful, having animal welfare issues, difficult to obtain in field condition. In the faeces of cow, estradiol 17-α predominated, whereas in mares and sows, estradiol 17-β and estrone are maindoi:10.5455/vetworld.2013.59-63 fatcat:bjjbpay7njfthposbcx4bx3bbi