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The formation of hollow metal oxide nanoparticles through the oxidation process at low temperatures from 295 to 423 K has been studied by transmission electron microscopy for Cu, Al, and Pb. For Cu and Al, hollow oxide nanoparticles are obtained as a result of vacancy aggregation in the oxidation processes, resulting from the rapid outward diffusion of metal ions through the oxide layer during the oxidation process. On the other hand, Pb nanoparticles turn to solid PbO because the diffusivitydoi:10.1063/1.2711383 fatcat:xoc7n335fzbltijdzz5uhqvdla