Physiology and pathophysiology of the lymphatic system. Research results and further prospects
Kazanskij Medicinskij Žurnal
The review summarizes own research and literature on the role of the lymphatic system in a number of physiological and pathological conditions. The typical reaction of lymph circulation seen in shock, acute diffuse peritonitis, in postoperative period is the lymph flow volumetric rate increase. Mobilization of the lymphatic system, extravascular fluid and proteins in well-studied emergencies is explained considering the role of the lymphatic system as a natural source of circulating blood
... ulating blood volume regulation and serum proteins replacement («autotransfusion»). These pathological processes are associated with progression of lymphatic failure on the late terms. The principle of lymph circulation targeted stimulation as a way to detoxify the body using hormones and procaine (Novocain) blockade of splanchnic nerves and the borderline sympathetic trunks was proposed based on modeled acute peritonitis. Increased microcirculation and central lymph flow, alterations in resorption, transport and filtration barrier function of the lymphatic system, as well as morphologic and functional reorganization of the lymph nodes were revealed in fever of different duration. Of particular interest are studies on the role of the lymphatic system in the immediate and long-term body adaptation to physical stress. Activation of central lymph circulation in adequate dynamic loads correlated with changes in the system lymph microcirculation (acceleration of lymph flow, increased peristalsis of the lymph microvessels walls and contractile activity of their valves). Extreme physical exhaustion was accompanied by expressed lymphovascular, extravascular and intravascular changes in the microvasculature. Lymphatic failure, as well as structural microcirculation impairments in a trained body occur only in extreme physical stress. Thus, the lymphatic system is involved in many physiological and pathological processes; its functional condition affects the course and outcome of the disease. Therefore, the treatment of the diseases requires, among other measures, correction of lymph formation and circulation (stimulation or inhibition, endolymphatic treatment, thoracic duct drainage, lymphosorption, blockade of nodal pathways and other methods - depending on the specific disease).