Infections following CAR-T cells therapy: current state-of-the-art review and recommendations

Jan Styczyński
2020 Acta Haematologica Polonica  
The most frequent and severe complications after chimeric antigen receptor T-cells (CAR-T cells) therapy include cytokine release syndrome (CRS), immune effector cell-associated neurotoxicity syndrome (ICANS), macrophage activation syndrome/hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (MAS/HLH), tumor lysis syndrome (TLS), followed by B-cell aplasia and hypogammaglobulinemia. With these immunologically related events, cytokine storm and immunosuppression, there is a high risk of sepsis and infectious
more » ... lications. The objective of this review was to present current knowledge on incidence, risk factors, clinical characteristics, and outcome of infections in patients following CAR-T cells therapy, as well as to present current recommendations on prophylaxis of infections after CAR-T cells therapy. Comparable to hematopoietic cell transplantation setting, specific pre- and post-CAR-T cells infusion phases can be determined as early (from 0 to +30 days), intermediate (from +31 to +100 days), and late (beyond day +100). These phases are characterized by CAR-T cells therapy-related factors and immune system defects contributing to an increased risk of infections. It is recommended that in case of active infection, CAR-T cells infusion should be delayed until infection has been successfully treated. After CAR-T cells therapy, prophylaxis should be implemented (anti-bacterial, anti-viral, anti-fungal, anti-pneumocystis), as well as treatment of neutropenia and immunoglobulin replacement should be considered. No recommendations so far can be given on revaccinations after CAR-T cells therapy.
doi:10.2478/ahp-2020-0004 fatcat:sqxyxna7qjhctmqgharqfwu5fe