Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning in Orthopedic Surgery: A Systematic Review Protocol
Background:Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Machine Learning (ML)is interwoven into our everyday lives and has grown enormously in some major fields in medicine including cardiology and radiology. While these specialties have quickly embraced AI and ML, orthopedic surgery has been slower to do so. Fortunately, there has been a recent surge in new research emphasizing the need for a systematic review. The primary objective of this review is to provide an update on the advances of AI and ML in
... of AI and ML in the field of orthopedic surgery. The secondary objectives of this review are to evaluate the applications of AI and ML in providing a clinical diagnosis and predicting post-operative outcomes and complications in orthopedic surgery.Methods:A systematic search will be conducted in PubMed, Science Direct, and Google Scholar databases for articles written in English, Italian, French, Spanish and Portuguese language articles published up to July 2020. References will be screened and assessed for eligibility by at least two independent reviewers as per PRISMA guidelines. Studies must apply to orthopedic interventions, acute and chronic orthopedic musculoskeletal injuries to be considered eligible. Studies will be excluded if they are animal studies, do not relate to orthopedic interventions, or if no clinical data were used. Gold standard processes and practices to obtain a clinical diagnosis and predict post-operative outcomes shall be compared with and without the use of ML algorithms. Any case reports and other primary studies assessing the prediction rate of post-operative outcomes or the ability to identify a diagnosis in orthopedic surgery will be included. Systematic reviews or literature reviews will be examined to identify further studies for inclusion, and results of meta-analyses will not be included in the analysis.Discussion:Our findings will evaluate the advances of AI and ML in the field of orthopedic surgery. We expect to find a large quantity of uncontrolled studies, and a smaller subset of papers describing actual applications and outcomes for clinical care. Cohort studies and large randomized control trial will likely be needed.Trial registration: The Protocol will be registered on PROSPERO international prospective register of systematic reviews prior to commencement.