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Members in a traditional supply chain compete to reduce their individual costs. But total cost is minimized in a cooperative, or a corporate managed, supply chain. A lower average cost and a lower cost variation are achieved by cooperative individual members in the long-run. The problem is formulated and solved as an integrated flow network. Previous research is expanded to include multi-period and multi-product cooperative supply chain with possibility of holding inventory in a multi-stage,doi:10.4102/sajbm.v43i1.178 fatcat:3hxdvvnw5bccve2b6u4l55x54m