Cadmium Nephropathy and Smoking

Robert G Price
2017 Clinical Medicine Insights Urology  
Cadmium is a non-essential metal which because of its extensive use in industry and agriculture presents a worldwide health hazard. Long-term exposure to cadmium results in nephropathy characterised by interstitial nephritis affecting the renal tubules. In addition to occupational exposure, cadmium can contaminate food and water increasing the number of people at risk of developing chronic renal disease. It is now known that smoking is an independent risk factor for renal disease. The current
more » ... ease. The current knowledge of the molecular mechanisms initiating and progressing cadmium nephrotoxicity is now partly understood and research on the molecular effects of nicotine on the kidney is ongoing. The exacerbation of renal disease by smoking is an increasing problem. It is concluded that where there is potential exposure to cadmium, either occupationally or environmentally, individuals should be encouraged to cease smoking.
doi:10.1177/1179561117726090 fatcat:56ja5mz6jbbpxos6zq3lq5zlzq