Operational, regional-scale, chemical weather forecasting models in Europe

J. Kukkonen, T. Balk, D. M. Schultz, A. Baklanov, T. Klein, A. I. Miranda, A. Monteiro, M. Hirtl, V. Tarvainen, M. Boy, V.-H. Peuch, A. Poupkou (+13 others)
<span title="2011-02-21">2011</span> <i title="Copernicus GmbH"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/x2ckl4ac3beqpklzlv72spkk2u" style="color: black;">Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions</a> </i> &nbsp;
Numerical models that combine weather forecasting and atmospheric chemistry are here referred to as chemical weather forecasting models. Eighteen operational chemical weather forecasting models on regional and continental scales in Europe are described and compared in this article. Topics discussed in this article include how 5 weather forecasting and atmospheric chemistry models are integrated into chemical weather forecasting systems, how physical processes are incorporated into the models
more &raquo; ... ough parameterization schemes, how the model architecture affect the predicted variables, and how air chemistry and aerosol processes are formulated. In addition, we discuss sensitivity analysis and evaluation of the models, user operational require-10 ments, such as model availability and documentation, and output availability and dissemination. In this manner, this article allows for the evaluation of the relative strengths and weaknesses of the various modelling systems and modelling approaches. Finally, this article highlights the most prominent gaps of knowledge for chemical weather forecasting models and suggests potential priorities for future research directions, for 15 the following selected focus areas: emission inventories, the integration of numerical weather prediction and atmospheric chemical transport models, boundary conditions and nesting of models, data assimilation of the various chemical species, improved understanding and parameterization of physical processes, better evaluation of models against data and the construction of model ensembles. 20 clude a combination of weather forecasting and atmospheric chemistry simulations are 5987 ACPD here referred to as chemical weather forecasting (CWF). CWF can therefore be seen as a specific category of air-quality forecasting, where air-quality forecasting models using numerical weather prediction (NWP) models are CWF models, but air-quality forecasting models using statistical methods are not (Kukkonen et al., 2009c). Similarly, for accuracy and consistency in replacing the traditional term air-quality forecast-5 ing and information system, we introduce a new term chemical weather forecasting and information system (CWFIS) to represent the integrated system responsible for the prediction and dissemination of chemical weather forecasts. Sometimes the term biological weather forecasting is used to refer to forecasting of biological constituents in the air, such as various pollen species and airborne allergens. which are the optimal ones in most cases. Thus, a systematic review of these options could substantially assist in evaluating the strengths and weaknesses of the various methods, and thus contribute to the development of better and more robust modelling methods in the future. Consequently, this present article aims to bring the field up to date with the most comprehensive summary and assessment of the state of CWF. 5 European-wide projects on chemical weather modeling This study is part of the European Cooperation in Science and Technology (COST) ES0602 action, which provides a forum for benchmarking approaches and practices in data exchange and multi-model capabilities for CWF and near real-time (NRT) information services in Europe (http://www.chemicalweather.eu). The action was initiated by 10 the Network of European Meteorological services (EUMETNET, http://www.eumetnet. eu) and the European Environment Agency (EEA). The content of this COST action, its main objectives and organisation have been reviewed by Kukkonen et al. (2009a,b), and the main results by Kukkonen et al. (2009c). The COST action includes participants from 20 countries, and its duration is from 2007 to 2011. 15 The COST ES0602 action has constructed a European open-access CWF portal (ECWFP) that includes access to a substantial number (more than 20) of available chemical weather forecasting systems and their numerical forecasts; these cover in total 31 areas in Europe (Balk et al., 2010; http://www.chemicalweather.eu/Domains). This portal can be used to find out, which CWF services are available for a specific 20 domain, for specific source categories or for specific pollutants. Such a single point of reference for European CWF information has not previously been operational. The Action has also investigated and reviewed existing chemical weather information systems and services (e.g., Karatzas and Kukkonen, 2009). This study has also been part of the EU-funded projects MEGAPOLI, Megacities: Emissions, urban, regional and 25 Global Atmospheric POLlution and climate effects, and Integrated tools for assessment and mitigation
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