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Optimal port placement and intra-operative navigation in robotically assisted minimally invasive cardiovascular surgery are essential for the improvement and success of a teleoperator based heart operation. A new system incorporating both port placement planning and intraoperative navigation was established. Offline the optimal port placement is planned on a threedimensional virtual reconstruction of the patient's computed tomography scan. Using this planned data an accurate in-vivo portdoi:10.1016/j.ics.2004.03.049 fatcat:rii6opa525gcxgaeqodbsn6kgm