Transitioning of Steel Producers to the Steelworks 4.0 –Literature Review with Case Studies
The publication presents a picture of modern steelworks that is evolving from steelworks 3.0 to steelworks 4.0. The paper was created on the basis of secondary sources of information (desk research). The entire publication concerns the emerging opportunities for the development of the steel producers to Industry 4.0 and the changes already implemented in the steel plants. The collected information shows the support environment for changes in the steel sector (EU programs), the levels of
... n of steel mills, along with the areas of change in the steel industry and implemented investment projects. The work consists of a theoretical part based on a literature review and a practical part based on case studies. The work ends with a discussion in which the staged and segmented nature of the changes introduced in the analyzed sector is emphasized. Based on the three case studies described in the paper, a comparative analysis was conducted between them. When we tried to compare methods used in the three analyzed steel producers (capital groups): ArcelorMittal, Thyssenkrupp, and Tata Steel Group, it can be seen that in all organizations, the main problem connected with steelworks 4.0 transition is the digitalization of all processes within an organization and in the entire supply chain. This is realized using various tools and methods but they are concentrated on using technologies and methods such as artificial intelligence, drones, virtual reality, full automatization, and industrial robots. The effects are connected to better relations with customers, which leads to an increase in customer satisfaction and the organizations' profit. The steel industry will undergo further strong changes, bringing it closer to Industry 4.0 because it occupies an important place in the economies of many countries due to the strong dependence of steel producers on the markets of the recipients (steel consumers). Steel is the basic material needed to make many products, and its properties have been valued for centuries. In addition, steel mills with positive economic, social, and environmental aspects are part of the concept of sustainability for industries and economies.