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Overview on the prior designs of the mixed-voltage I/O buffers is provided in this work. A new 2.5/5-V mixed-voltage I/O buffer realized with only thin gate-oxide devices is proposed. The new proposed mixed-voltage I/O buffer with simpler dynamic n-well bias circuit and gate-tracking circuit can prevent the undesired leakage current paths and the gate-oxide reliability problem, which occur in the conventional CMOS I/O buffer. The new mixed-voltage I/O buffer has been fabricated and verified indoi:10.1109/tcsi.2006.882816 fatcat:taoznwkaqzdtrkaaj6a246gdly