Contrast-induced nephropathy in patients with acute coronary syndrome with ST-segment elevation: risk factors and prognosis
Objective: to study the risk factors for acute renal injury, the dynamics of renal function and prognosis in patients with acute coronary syndrome with ST-segment elevation (STEACS) with contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) after primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).Materials and methods. We studied 20 patients with STEACS, who developed СIN after PCI (follow-up group), and 98 patients with STEACS without СIN (comparison group). All patients were measured plasma creatinine level and
... atinine level and glomerular filtration rate by the formula CKD-EPI before and 48 hours after PCI. CIN was detected with an increase in creatinine levels in the blood by more than 26.5 µmol / l from the baseline 48 hours after administration of radiopaque drug (RCP). Endpoints were evaluated at the hospital stage and within 12 months after PCI.Results. CIN after PCI occurred in 16.9 % of patients with STEACS. Among patients with СIN, persons aged over 75 years (60 %), with diabetes mellitus (45 %), chronic kidney disease (75 %), postinfarction cardiosclerosis (50 %), chronic heart failure of functional class III–IV (80 %), developed acute heart failure T. Killip III–IV (90 %) were significantly more often observed. The left ventricular ejection fraction was lower in patients with СIN (p <0.05). The average increase in plasma creatinine 48 hours after PCI was higher in the follow-up group (p <0.05). In patients with СIN more often, than without СIN, three-vascular lesions of the coronary bed were detected (65 and 25.5 % respectively, p <0.001). The same trend was observed, when assessing the average number of coronary artery stenoses, the number of implanted stents and the volume of RCP used. Patients with СIN, than without СIN, were longer in hospital (12.1 ± 0.96 and 10.2 ± 1.11 days respectively, p <0.05) and more often needed re-hospitalization within 12 months after PCI (34 and 4.1 % respectively, p <0.05).Summary. CIN in patients with STEACS after primary PCI was more likely to develop, if the following symptoms were present: age over 75 years, diabetes mellitus, chronic heart failure, post-infarction cardiosclerosis, chronic kidney disease, low ejection fraction of the left ventricle, initially high creatinine level, development of acute heart failure, trisovascular coronary lesion and multiple coronary stenting. The duration of hospital stay and the frequency of re-hospitalizations within a year after PCI significantly increased in patients in the CIN group.