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Evaluating the performance of two surface layer schemes for the momentum and heat exchange processes during severe haze pollution in Jing-Jin-Ji in eastern China

Yue Peng, Hong Wang, Yubin Li, Changwei Liu, Tianliang Zhao, Xiaoye Zhang, Zhiqiu Gao, Tong Jiang, Huizheng Che, Meng Zhang

2018
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Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics
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<p><strong>Abstract.</strong> The turbulent flux parameterization schemes in the surface layer are crucial for air pollution modeling. There have been some deficiencies in the prediction of air pollutants by atmosphere chemical models, which is closely related to the uncertainties of the momentum and sensible heat fluxes calculated in the surface layer. The differences between two surface layer schemes (Li and MM5 schemes) were discussed, and the performances of two schemes were mainly
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... ere mainly evaluated based on the observed momentum and sensible heat fluxes during a heavy haze episode in Jing-Jin-Ji in eastern China. The results showed that the aerodynamic roughness length <span class="inline-formula"><i>z</i><sub>0<i>m</i></sub></span> and the thermal roughness length <span class="inline-formula"><i>z</i><sub>0<i>h</i></sub></span> played major roles in the flux calculation. Compared with the Li scheme, ignoring the difference between <span class="inline-formula"><i>z</i><sub>0<i>m</i></sub></span> and <span class="inline-formula"><i>z</i><sub>0<i>h</i></sub></span> in the MM5 scheme induced a great error in the calculation of the sensible heat flux (e.g., the error was 54<span class="thinspace"></span>% at Gucheng station). Besides the roughness length, the algorithm for the surface turbulent flux as well as the roughness sublayer also resulted in certain errors in the MM5 scheme. In addition, magnitudes of <span class="inline-formula"><i>z</i><sub>0<i>m</i></sub></span> and <span class="inline-formula"><i>z</i><sub>0<i>h</i></sub></span> have significant influence on the two schemes. The large <span class="inline-formula"><i>z</i><sub>0<i>m</i></sub></span> and <span class="inline-formula"><i>z</i><sub>0<i>m</i></sub>∕<i>z</i><sub>0<i>h</i></sub></span> in megacities with a rough surface (e.g., Beijing) resulted in much larger differences of momentum and sensible heat fluxes between Li and MM5, compared with the small <span class="inline-formula"><i>z</i><sub>0<i>m</i></sub></span> and <span class="inline-formula"><i>z</i><sub>0<i>m</i></sub>∕<i>z</i><sub>0<i>h</i></sub></span> in suburban areas with a smooth surface (e.g., Gucheng). The Li scheme could better characterize the evolution of atmospheric stratification than the MM5 scheme in general, especially for the transition stage from unstable to stable atmospheric stratification, corresponding to the PM<span class="inline-formula"><sub>2.5</sub></span> accumulation. The biases of momentum and sensible heat fluxes from Li were lower, about 38<span class="thinspace"></span>% and 43<span class="thinspace"></span>%, respectively, than those from MM5 during this stage. This study indicates the superiority of the Li scheme in describing regional atmospheric stratification and an improved possibility of severe haze prediction in Jing-Jin-Ji in eastern China by coupling it into atmosphere chemical models.</p>

doi:10.5194/acp-18-17421-2018
fatcat:wv7h6r7dvffo7pnanxmuirfoxa