Determinations of Longitude

1880 Scientific American  
has to be employed, and I have thus far used the smoked [Continued from SUPPLEMENT, No. 231, page 3674.1 plentifully strewed. This is covered with a number of seal paper process so much adopted in the observatories of and walrus hides carefully sewn together. Inside the tent, France. In this war the "radiograms " which illustrate THE NORTH-EAST PASSAGE. and right before the entrance, is a smaller cubiform tent, this paper were obtamed. NARRATIVE OF CAPTAIN PALANDER , SWED ISH RO Y AL NAVY ,
more » ... of reindeer skins, and used as the sleeping chamber. When using the instrument to record the radiance of the COMMANDER OF THE EXPLORING VESSEL. During the cold season it is heated by blubber lamps. Even snn I have hitherto exposed it in a box of copper surduring severe cold the atmosphere within this tent is so mounted by a dome of glass into which the bulbs of the YOKOHAMA, Sept. 12, 1879. heated that the natives who occupy it, without distinction thermometer project. The line which joins them is in the The season of the year was now far advanced, and being of sex or age, lie almost nude. The dimensions of the tent plane of the merIdian of the place, and the black bulb to the acquainted with the sudden transition from·summer to win-depend upon t.he number of the family. In each tent gener· north. The box itself is supported at an elevation of four ter in the Arctic regions, we knew that at any time winter ally dwells onl ; one family, in which are included the sisters feet or 11:iereabouts upon a stand of wood, the legs of which might set in in earnest, and make all further progress im-and brothers 0 the married couple before they settle for are fi rmly embedded in the ground. The stand itself is' possible. From this time the temperature was invariably themselves. located at the extremity of a garden which overlooks a valbelow zero. The Tchuktchis, the children of nature in the Arctic re ley and the sea. A small window in the box permits the On the evening of the 18th, during the darkness, while gions, fostered among ice, snow, and cold, familiarized with movements of the train to be seen, and the promptness with forcing a belt of ground ice, we touched the bottom; but I bloody scenes in the seal, whale, and walrus .hunt, without which the apparatus acts to be ob�erved. If a cloud "no the following morning, at 4 o'clock, we were again on the' any of the infl uences of civilization, are, notwithstanding, a bigger than a man's hand," and" light as a feather" in its way quite uninjured. good natured, friendly, hospitable, and honest people. texture, fl oats before the sun, and occupies but three orfour On the 19th of September we succeeded in pushing our Although the Vega during the long winter was daily visited seconds in its transit, its presence, the duration of its pasway forward about fi fty miles. On the 20th, 21st, 22d, by at least twenty natives, it was only on two or three oc sage, and the degree of thermal obscuration it effects are at 23d, 24th, and 25th, our combat with the ice was continued, casions that they were found guilty of dishonestly appropria once set down. and we made very little progress. On the 26th we rounded ting anything, and these thefts were of the most trifl ing de-The cylinder of the radiograph passes over a space of Cape Wankarem, where we found tolerably clear water, scription. 0'8;5 of an inch per hour, a somewhat open range, but, as caused by the rapidly fl owing river of the same name. The The Tchuktchis are a people of small stature, although will be seen on reference to the tracings. the needle often �ame evening we also doubled Cape Onman, and on the fol-among them may be found perfect p,iants; as, for instance, moves for some considerable distance in both directions lowing day we went right across Koliutchin Bay, passing a women whom we saw 6 feet 3 inches tall. Their c{)mplexion along the same thin line, thereby showing a practical instanclose to Koliutchin Island. In the evening we moored close is sallow, the men's being usually darker than that of the taneity of action under very ordinary thermal changes in west of the north· east point of the bay. women. Occasionally, however, one may see, especially the radiance from the sky. The infl uence of the sun's The 28th of September was a cold but clear morning. The among the women, a complexion as fair and clear as that of rays at daybreak is almost always shown, for some minsea had, during the night, been covered with a laver of ice the inhabitants of Northern Europe. The eyes are black, utes at any rate, before the sun himself is seen, and ocone to two inches thick. We rounded the point, but after-. and often set oblique like the Chinese. The hair, which is casionally it would seem even for hours before his time to ward could only push our way forward about four miles coal black, is worn by the men cut quite short; while the rise. when we lIad again to moor. I little thought on the morn-women allow it to grow freely, part it in the middle of the It is not, however, now my purpose to dwell upon the ing of that day this would be the last time during 1878 that brow, and wear it in plaits of twelve to eighteen inches long, interesting changes which take place in the intensity of the our vessel would be on the onward move. We had before which hang down at each ear. They also wear a lock thermal radiance from the sky, my present object being to encountered stronger ice, and fought against greater diffi-combed down and cut across which covers half of the fore describe an instrument by means of which they may be reculties; and now to reach Behring Strait we had only 120 head. The men also use a similar lock, aud sometimes a corded or observed. Doubtless in several of its details t'le miles to accompli�h of the 4, 000 which constitute the length long tuft at the crown of the head. This tuft is worn, so •• radiograph " may be improved, notably in the condithn of the Old World's northern shores. far as I could learn, only by chiefs. of its bulbs, and it would unquestionablv be better if it At first no one would realize that we might be compelled Their clothing is made principally of reindeer skin, and computed for itseli the areas included by Its curves. This, to pass the. winter here, hut hoped for a change in the consists of a pesk or blouse reaching to the knees, with an I dare say, I shall presently enable it to do. Meanwhile, as weather, and for a storm which would break and disperse the opening at the top just sufficient for the head to pass through. a recorder of the duration and intensity of radiant heat, the ice. But instead of this, however, the cold· increased, and I In addition, the men have ti�ht-fi tting trowsers of reindeer instrument, so far as I have seen, is the only one whose readthe new ice which connected the drift fl oes daily became skin, which are tucked down mto boots of tlle same material, ings are uninfl uenced by the temperature or the pressure of stronger, and the weather remained quite calm. Here we the latter with soles of walrus hide. Thp women also wear the air. were to spend the winter-here where the American whalers trowsers, but those are wide, ending in\mediately below the
doi:10.1038/scientificamerican06121880-3688asupp fatcat:qtvatcxg4bdgrirj3d5ydupsta