A Subset of Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass Bacterial Consortium Colonizes the Gut of Nonsurgical Rats without Inducing Host-Microbe Metabolic Changes
Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is an effective weight loss surgery, resulting in a characteristic increase of fecal Gammaproteobacteria. The contribution of this compositional change to metabolic benefits of RYGB is currently debatable. Therefore, this study employed 16S rRNA gene sequencing and metabolic profiling to monitor the dynamic colonization of the RYGB microbial consortium and their metabolic impact on the host. Eleven Wistar rats received vancomycin and enrofloxacin, followed by
... in, followed by fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) of cecal slurry obtained from either RYGB- or sham-operated rats. Urine and feces from the microbiota recipients (RYGB microbiota recipients [RYGBr], n = 6; sham microbiota recipients [SHAMr], n = 5) were collected pre- and post-antibiotics and 1, 3, 6, 9, and 16 days post-FMT. No significant differences in body weight and food intake were observed between RYGBr and SHAMr. While neither group reached the community richness of that of their donors, by day 6, both groups reached the richness and diversity of that prior to antibiotic treatment. However, the typical signature of RYGB microbiome—increased Enterobacteriaceae—was not replicated in these recipients after two consecutive FMT, suggesting that the environmental changes induced by the anatomical rearrangements of RYGB could be key for sustaining such a consortium. The transplanted bacteria did not induce the same metabolic signature of urine and feces as those previously reported in RYGB-operated rats. Future work is required to explore environmental factors that shape the RYGB microbiota in order to further investigate the metabolic functions of the RYGB microbiota, thereby teasing out the mechanisms of the RYGB surgery. IMPORTANCE Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery results in a long-term gut bacterial shift toward Gammaproteobacteria in both patients and rodents. The contribution of this compositional shift, or the RYGB bacterial consortium, to the metabolic benefit of the surgery remains debatable. It is unclear how well these bacteria colonize in an anatomically normal gut. This is a fundamental question in both defining the function of the RYGB microbiota and evaluating its potential as a nonsurgical treatment for obesity. We monitored the dynamic colonization of the RYGB bacterial consortium and observed that while approximately one-third of the bacterial taxa from the RYGB donor colonized in the gut of the nonoperated recipients, Gammaproteobacteria were unable to colonize for longer than 3 days. The study highlighted that a successful long-term colonization of Gammaproteobacteria-rich RYGB microbiota in nonsurgical animals requires key environmental factors that may be dictated by the intestinal anatomical modification by the surgery itself.